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Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide

Helpful resources for applying The Chicago Manual of Style standards to in-text citations, works cited pages, and formatting.

Note!

Page numbers are only used in direct quotations.

If you are paraphrasing or referencing ideas from a text, then you do not have to include the page number. 

 

Author-Date In-Text Citation Examples

Source Type

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation
One author

Jones (2017) argues that the spotted flyer shore bird is the first species to circle the globe.

(Jones 2017)

Two authors

Jones and O'Connor (2018, 12) state "the blue-billed peacock gets its name from the bright blue spots along it's beak."

(Jones and O'Connor 2018, 12)
Three authors Jones, O'Connor, and Hodges (2007) state suitable habitat as the deciding factor for species migration and settlement. (Jones, O'Connor, and Hodges 2007)
Four or more authors

Jones et al. (1995) describe the sloth as "a kind-eyed, slow moving mammal for which locating and languidly grazing is the sole focus" (115).

(Jones et al. 1995, 115)
Chapter/Article in Edited Book

The "tuxedo" birds discussed by O'Connor are known for their black and white markings that are not only decorative but help to camouflage the species from predators (O'Connor, 2005).

(O'Connor 2005)
e-book

Julia Jones, A History of Birds (Chicago: ALA Press, 2011), 100-107, http://www.books.com-history-of-birds.html.

Author First and Last Name, Book Title in Italics (Publication city: Publisher name, Publication year), pages, URL or database name.

Jones, History of Birds, 112.

Source Type

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation
One author

Jones (2018) stresses purchases of carbon offsets will not be enough to counteract the ever-increasing aviation carbon footprint.

(Jones 2018)

Two authors

Hodges and Jones (2017, 18) state "the loggerhead sea turtle is enjoying a resurgence in the warm waters of the Gulf due to the steps taken by a consortium of government agencies and private corporations."

(Hodges and Jones 2018, 18)
Three authors Jones, O'Connor, and Hodges (2007) state suitable habitat as the deciding factor for species migration and settlement. (Jones, O'Connor, and Hodges 2007)
Four or more authors

Jones et al. (1995) describe the sloth as "a kind-eyed, slow moving mammal for which locating and languidly grazing is the sole focus" (115).

(Jones et al. 1995, 115)
Organization as author According to the Sea Turtle Conservancy (2015), the Atlantic Hawksbill sea turtle "is the most tropical of all sea turtles enjoying the waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans" (33). (Sea Turtle Conservancy 2015, 33)

Note: for journal article in-text citations, add just the page number for the quoted material in the citation. In the full bibliography/works cited entry you will add the entire page range for the article.

Source Type

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation
One author

Wilson (2014) stresses that tobacco products continue to show a link to cancer.

(Wilson 2014)

Two authors

Hodges and Jones (2017, 18) state "the loggerhead sea turtle is enjoying a resurgence in the warm waters of the Gulf due to the steps taken by a consortium of government agencies and private corporations."

(Hodges and Jones 2017, 18)
Three authors Jones, O'Connor, and Hodges (2007) state suitable habitat as the deciding factor for species migration and settlement. (Jones, O'Connor, and Hodges 2007)
Four or more authors

Jones et al. (1995) describe the sloth as "a kind-eyed, slow moving mammal for which locating and languidly grazing is the sole focus" (115).

(Jones et al. 1995, 115)

Note: for journal article in-text citations, add just the page number for the quoted material in the citation. In the full bibliography/works cited entry you will add the entire page range for the article.

Source Type

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation
With Author Name

Jones (2018) emphasizes that coding skills may prove useful in many career paths, including education and finance.

(Jones 2018)

No Author Name

Lone Star College (2019) seeks to provide "comprehensive educational opportunities and programs to enrich lives."

(Lone Star College 2019)
Video Content In his TED Talk, Clint Smith (2014) encourages his students to read critically, write consciously, speak clearly, and to tell their truth to abate the ignorance and hate that can arise from being silent. (Smith 2014)