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Criminal Justice

This research guide is for students studying criminal justice at Lone Star College--North Harris.

Starting Point

Step 1:  Think about your topic!  What questions are you trying to answer?

Step 2:  List words that best represent the main concepts of your topic. These are called "keywords" and can be used while searching for more information. Consider very broad and very narrow topics. Here are some sample keywords:

  • (broad) rights of the accused

  • (specific) right of the accused to competent counsel

  • (specific and situational) public defenders in Texas

  • (specific and situational) public defenders and women

keyword strategy

Databases

Criminal Justice Statistics

APA Resources

In-Text Citations

Source In-text Citation Parenthetical Citation

General format

Author's last name used in sentence (date) quote or paraphrase (page number). quote or paraphrase (Author's last name, date, page number).
Source with one author Barnes (2009) said, "..." (p.48). "..." (Barnes, 2009, p. 48).
Source with two authors Brown and Taylor (2015) wrote, "..." (p. 243). "..." (Brown & Taylor, 2015, p. 243).
Source with 3-5 authors

The first time: 

Hopwood, Puller, & McGittigan (2017) say, "..." (p. 935).

Every time after that: 

Hopwood et al. (2017) states, "..." (p. 937).

The first time: 

"..." (Hopwood, Puller, & McGittigan, 2017, p. 935).

Every time after that: 

"..." (Hopwood et al., 2017, p. 937).

Source with 6 or more authors

As stated in Hoya et al. (2019), "..." (p. 314).

"..." (Hoya et al., 2019, p. 314). 
Source with no author

Article:

In the article, "Just Another Brick" (2009) the author says, "..." (p. 4).

Book:

In The Handbook for Radish Farming (1985), it is stated that, "..." (p. 121).   

Article:

"..." ("Just Another Brick," 2009, p. 4).

Book:

"..." (The Handbook for Radish Farming, 1985, p. 121).   

Corporation/Organization as author (with an abbreviation) According to the National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH] (2017), "..."

First time: 

"..." (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2017). 

Every time after that: 

"..." (NIMH, 2017).

American Psychological Association. (2009). Crediting sources: Citing references in text. Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed., p. 171, 177) Washington, D.C.: Author.

Note!

Page numbers are only used in direct quotations.

If you are paraphrasing or referencing ideas from a text, then you do not have to include the page number. 

 

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